There are various words used in the New Testament (NT) which are translated into our English bibles as “hell.” First off, there’s Hades which is “properly, unseen, i.e. “Hades” or the place (state) of departed souls.”  Besides that, there’s also Tartarus which has been taken to mean, “the place of punishment of the fallen angels,”  Now we come to the topic of today’s article, that is, Gehenna.
“Gehenna is a transliteration from the Aramaic form of the Hebrew ge-hinnom, “valley of Hinnom.”  To transliterate is to “write or print (a letter or word) using the closest corresponding letters of a different alphabet or language.”  The development can be summarised as: Ge-Hinnom (Hebrew) –> Ge-hinnam (Aramaic) -> Ge’enna (Greek); Gehenna (transliteration)
The phrase “valley of Hinnom” is found in Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:16; Nehemiah 11:30. It is also known as the valley of Ben-Hinnom (Joshua 15:8; 18:16), the valley of the son of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10), and Topheth  (Jeremiah 7:31; 2 Kings 23:10).
Continue reading “Gehenna & The Valley of Hinnom”
On the 17th of October 2017, I had the privilege of speaking at one of the sessions in a series on the Doctrine of Scripture, organised by my local church. Below is an outline of my approach to the question, “Manuscript Errors in the Bible?” (Session 2). Attached are the PowerPoint slides & participants’ notes, from the session.
[Please note that this is only meant to be a brief overview of the highly technical field of Textual Criticism. In the limited time I had, to present, I could not cover additional matters (e.g. manuscript text types) which I would have loved to. However, if you do find the resources below useful for your personal edification and/or for the edification of your ministry/local church, please use them without hesitation. God bless!]
- Scholars referred to
3) Manuscripts of NT vs Classical Texts
- Words in NT vs Variants in NT manuscripts
4) Scribal Work (Exercise)
- Each person copies down as I dictate 7 verses [taken from Amos 2:9-16; see attachment titled Scribal Work (Exercise)]
- Each “manuscript” will then be passed to person on the left/right and participants will take turns to read out each verse
- Variants will then be identified and corrected
5) Types of Variants
- Explain the 4 types (i.e. not meaningful & not viable, viable but not meaningful, meaningful but not viable, and viable & meaningful)
- Go through a few examples of each type
6) Text Reconstruction (Exercise)
- Each group receives 4 “manuscripts” [see attachment titled Text Reconstruction (Exercise)] from which they will attempt to discover the original wordings
7) What happens if we have no NT manuscripts?
Manuscript Errors in the Bible (Slides)
Manuscript Errors in the Bible? (Participants Notes)
Scribal Work (Exercise)
Text Reconstruction (Exercise)
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are those of the individual author, and they do not reflect in any way those of the institutions to which he is affiliated.