Doctrine: What Christians Should Believe (2010) [Chapter 1]

[Articles in the Summed Up series are intended to be summaries of chapters of selected theological books. The author(s) will be quoted verbatim for the purposes of ensuring accurate representation]

Trinity: God Is

(pp. 11-35)

A) About the author(s):

Mark Driscoll has a Master of Arts degree in exegetical theology from Western Seminary. He was the founding and preaching pastor of Mars Hill Church, and former president of the Acts 29 Church Planting Network

Gerry Breshears is a Professor of Theology at Western Seminary and earned his PhD in Systematic Theology from Fuller Theological Seminary.

B) Chapter Summary:

i) What is the Trinity?

“God is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. One God. Three persons. While the word Trinity does not appear in Scripture, this One-who-is-Three concept clearly does.”[1]

“… to say that each member of the Trinity is a “person” does not mean that God the Father or God the Spirit became human beings. Rather, it means that each member of the Trinity thinks, acts, feels, speaks, and relates because they are persons and not impersonal forces.”[2]

“The doctrine of the Trinity brings together three equally essential biblical truths without denying or diminishing any. First, there is only one true God. The Old Testament contains a number of clear statements that there is only one God. Likewise, the New Testament clearly states that there is only one God.”[3]

For OT, see Gen. 1:1; Deut. 4:35, 39; 6:4-5; 32:39; 1 Sam. 2:2; 2 Sam. 7:22; 22:32; 1 Kings 8:59-60; 2 Chron. 15:3; Ps. 86:8-10; Isa. 37:20; 43:10; 44:6-8; 45:5, 14, 21-22; 46:9; Jer. 10:10

For NT, see John 5:44; 17:3; Rom. 3:30; 16:27; 1 Cor. 8:4-6; Gal. 3:20; Eph. 4:6; 1 Tim. 1:17; 2:5; 1 Thes. 1:9; James 2:19; Jude 25; 1 John 5:20-21

“Second, the Father, Son, and Spirit are equally declared throughout Scripture to be God.”[4]

Father as God – see John 6:27; 17:3; 1 Cor. 8:6; 2 Cor. 1:3; Eph. 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3

Jesus as God – see Matt. 28:9; John 1:1-4, 14; 5:17-18; 8:58; 10:30-38 … Matt. 26:63-65; John 5:17-23; 8:58-59; 10:30-39; 19:7.

Holy Spirit as God – see Gen. 1:2; Ps. 104:30; Heb. 9:14; Mic. 3:8; Isa. 40:13-14; Ps. 139:7; Acts 5:3-4

“Third, though one God, the Father, Son and, Spirit are distinct persons, The Father and Son are two persons in frequent salutations of letters in the New Testament, as well as in other Scriptures. Scripture is also clear that Jesus and the Holy Spirit are not the same person. Likewise, the Father is not the Holy Spirit.”[5]

Father – Son: Rom. 1:17; 1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:2; Gal. 1:3 … John 3:17; 5:31-32; 8:16-18 …

Jesus – Holy Spirit: Luke 3:22; John 14:16; 15:26; 16:7; 1 John 2:1

Father – Holy Spirit: John 14:15; 15:26; Rom. 8:11, 26-27; 2 Cor. 1:3-4; Gal. 1:1

Continue reading “Doctrine: What Christians Should Believe (2010) [Chapter 1]”

Was Jesus’s Body Broken for Us?

There seems to be a longstanding tradition to say, during Holy Communion, that Jesus’ body was broken for us. In Richard Baxter’s writings, we see that “The Words of distribution – “Take yee, Eat yee, This is the Body of Christ which is Broken for you, Do this in remembrance of Him,” … – followed the [1549 Book of Common Prayer and 1637 Scottish Book of Common Prayer].”[1] (emphasis mine).

Vernard Eller, in his book titled Could the Church Have It all Wrong? (1997) says that, “In the Lord’s Supper the bread represents the body of Jesus broken for us.”[2] (emphasis mine). Well known bible teacher, John Piper, also uses similar language: “The Lord’s Supper is precious beyond words as a gift from Jesus to his church not only as a reminder of his death for us, but also as an occasion when he draws near to nourish our intimacy with him and strengthen us by his shed blood and his broken body.”[3] (emphasis mine)

This article will attempt to answer the question whether it is right to say that Jesus’ body was broken for us, in a manner which is most faithful to Scripture. First off, let us look at what the Gospels have to say about the matter. It is of utmost importance since these are from Jesus Himself who instituted the ordinance of the Lord’s Supper.

  1. The Gospels

Matthew 26:26(NASB)
While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.”


Mark 14:22(NASB)
While they were eating, He took some bread, and after a blessing He broke it, and gave it to them, and said, “Take it; this is My body.”


Luke 22:19(NASB)
And when He had taken some bread and given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”

From the above passages, what we can derive is that that which is broken is the bread. We see no mention of Christ’s body being broken. A.T. Robertson shares this point when after referring to John 19:30 he said, “The bread was broken, but not the body of Jesus.”[4] However, could it be argued that the broken bread is representative of Jesus’s broken body? We will evaluate the strength of this interpretation later in the article. Moving on, let us examine Pauline passages which make mention of the Holy Communion.

Continue reading “Was Jesus’s Body Broken for Us?”